Demostene Sulla Corona Pdf 11l: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Ancient Greek Orator's Speech
Demostene Sulla Corona Pdf 11l: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Ancient Greek Orator's Speech
Demostene Sulla Corona Pdf 11l is a digital edition of the famous speech delivered by Demosthenes in 330 BC, in defense of his political career and his support for the Athenian resistance against Philip of Macedon. The speech is considered one of the masterpieces of ancient rhetoric, and has been studied and commented by scholars for centuries.
Demostene Sulla Corona Pdf 11l
In this article, we will examine the historical context, the structure, the style, and the main arguments of Demosthenes' speech. We will also explore some of the sources and editions of the text, and how they can help us to better understand and appreciate this classic work.
The Historical Context
Demosthenes was one of the most prominent Athenian statesmen and orators of the 4th century BC. He was a leader of the anti-Macedonian faction, which opposed the expansionist policies of Philip II, the king of Macedon, who sought to dominate Greece and Asia Minor. Demosthenes delivered several speeches against Philip, known as the Philippics, in which he urged the Athenians and their allies to resist Philip's aggression and defend their freedom and autonomy.
In 338 BC, Philip defeated a coalition of Greek states, including Athens and Thebes, at the battle of Chaeronea. This marked the end of the classical period of Greek history, and the beginning of the Macedonian hegemony over Greece. Philip imposed his authority over most of the Greek cities, except for Sparta, and formed a league called the League of Corinth, which recognized him as its leader and agreed to follow his plans for a campaign against Persia.
Demosthenes was one of the few Athenians who refused to accept Philip's victory and continued to oppose him. He was accused by his political enemies, especially Aeschines, another Athenian orator who supported Philip's cause, of being a traitor and a corrupt politician. Aeschines also blamed Demosthenes for the failure of an embassy that he had led to Philip in 346 BC, which resulted in a peace treaty that was unfavorable to Athens.
In 336 BC, Philip was assassinated by one of his bodyguards, and his son Alexander succeeded him as king of Macedon and leader of the League of Corinth. Alexander continued his father's plans for a campaign against Persia, and invaded Asia Minor in 334 BC. He also faced some rebellions from some Greek cities, especially Thebes, which he crushed brutally in 335 BC.
In 330 BC, Demosthenes proposed to honor Ctesiphon, one of his supporters, with a golden crown for his services to Athens. Aeschines opposed this motion, and brought a lawsuit against Ctesiphon, accusing him of violating several laws and regulations regarding public honors. Aeschines also used this opportunity to attack Demosthenes personally, and to question his patriotism and integrity.
The trial took place in 330 BC, before a jury of about 500 Athenian citizens. Aeschines spoke first, delivering a long and harsh speech against Ctesiphon and Demosthenes. He accused them of being responsible for Athens' decline and humiliation by Philip and Alexander. He also accused Demosthenes of being a coward, a liar, a bribe-taker, and a traitor.
Demosthenes replied with his speech On the Crown (De Corona), which is regarded as his finest and most powerful speech. He defended himself and Ctesiphon against Aeschines' charges, and justified his political career and his opposition to Macedon. He also praised Ctesiphon for his loyalty and generosity to Athens. He appealed to the jury's sense of pride and dignity as Athenians, and reminded them of their glorious past and their struggle for freedom.
The jury was convinced by Demosthenes' speech, and acquitted Ctesiphon by a large majority. Aeschines failed to obtain one-fifth of the votes required to avoid a fine for bringing a false accusation. He left Athens in disgrace and went into exile.
The Structure of the Speech
Demosthenes' speech On the Crown is divided into four main parts, each with a different purpose and tone. The first part (1-75) is an introduction, in which Demosthenes sets the stage for his defense and attacks Aeschines' character and credibility. He also outlines his main themes and arguments, and appeals to the jury's emotions and sense of justice.
The second part (76-165) is a narrative, in which Demosthenes recounts his political career and his actions against Philip. He defends himself against Aeschines' accusations of cowardice, dishonesty, corruption, and treason. He also praises his own achievements and contributions to Athens' glory and freedom.
The third part (166-261) is a refutation, in which Demosthenes responds to Aeschines' specific charges regarding the legality and propriety of the crown proposed by Ctesiphon. He shows that Aeschines' arguments are based on false premises, distorted facts, and irrelevant laws. He also exposes Aeschines' hypocrisy and inconsistency.
The fourth part (262-324) is a conclusion, in which Demosthenes summarizes his main points and appeals to the jury's patriotism and pride. He contrasts his own conduct with that of Aeschines, and urges the jurors to acquit Ctesiphon and honor him with the crown. He also invokes the gods and the heroes of Athens as witnesses and supporters of his cause.
The Style of the Speech
Demosthenes' speech On the Crown is widely admired for its style, which combines rhetorical skill, emotional appeal, and artistic expression. Demosthenes uses a variety of stylistic devices and techniques to enhance his argument and persuade his audience. Some of these are:
Antithesis: Demosthenes contrasts opposite or contrasting ideas or words to create a strong effect and emphasize his point. For example, he says: "For it is not the same thing to speak in accusation and in defence; nor is it the same thing to be detected in wrong-doing and to convict one who has done wrong" (1).
Asyndeton: Demosthenes omits conjunctions between words or clauses to create a sense of speed, urgency, or emphasis. For example, he says: "I have been a lover of the people; I have spoken for the people; I have been a man of action" (18).
Metaphor: Demosthenes uses figurative language to compare two things that are not literally alike, but share some common quality or aspect. For example, he says: "For you are like men who have lent money on bottomry; they are anxious until their ships come home" (19).
Parallelism: Demosthenes arranges words or clauses in a similar or identical structure to create a sense of balance, rhythm, or harmony. For example, he says: "For I think that you ought to be brave and magnanimous and high-minded; that you ought to remember your ancestors; that you ought to be worthy of them" (23).
Pathos: Demosthenes appeals to the emotions and feelings of his audience to arouse their sympathy, anger, pity, or indignation. For example, he says: "And now I am here before you on trial for my life; and Aeschines is my accuser" (1).
The Main Arguments of the Speech
Demosthenes' speech On the Crown has two main objectives: to defend Ctesiphon against Aeschines' lawsuit, and to defend himself against Aeschines' accusations. To achieve these objectives, Demosthenes uses various arguments, some of which are:
Legal arguments: Demosthenes shows that Ctesiphon's proposal to crown him was lawful and proper, and that Aeschines' lawsuit was baseless and malicious. He argues that the laws cited by Aeschines were either irrelevant, misinterpreted, or obsolete. He also argues that the crown was a legitimate and customary way of honoring public benefactors, and that he deserved it for his services to Athens.
Political arguments: Demosthenes defends his political career and his opposition to Philip and Alexander. He argues that he acted in the best interests of Athens and Greece, and that he tried to preserve their freedom and autonomy against the Macedonian threat. He also argues that Aeschines was a traitor and a collaborator with Philip and Alexander, and that he harmed Athens and Greece by his actions and words.
Moral arguments: Demosthenes appeals to the moral values and principles of his audience. He argues that he was honest, courageous, patriotic, and generous, and that he followed the example of his ancestors and the heroes of Athens. He also argues that Aeschines was dishonest, cowardly, unpatriotic, and greedy, and that he betrayed his ancestors and the heroes of Athens.
Emotional arguments: Demosthenes appeals to the emotions and feelings of his audience. He arouses their sympathy, anger, pity, or indignation by using vivid language, rhetorical questions, exclamations, metaphors, anecdotes, or quotations. He also appeals to their pride and dignity as Athenians, and reminds them of their glorious past and their struggle for freedom.
A Conclusion for the Article
In this article, we have analyzed Demosthenes' speech On the Crown, one of the most famous and influential speeches in history. We have examined the historical context, the structure, the style, and the main arguments of the speech. We have seen how Demosthenes used his rhetorical skill and artistic expression to defend himself and Ctesiphon against Aeschines' charges, and to justify his political career and his opposition to Macedon. We have also seen how Demosthenes appealed to the jury's sense of pride and dignity as Athenians, and reminded them of their glorious past and their struggle for freedom.
Demosthenes' speech On the Crown is not only a masterpiece of oratory, but also a valuable source of information and insight into the history and culture of ancient Greece. It reveals the political and ideological conflicts that shaped the fate of Athens and Greece in the fourth century BC. It also reflects the values and principles that motivated and inspired Demosthenes and his audience. It is a speech that deserves to be read, studied, and admired by anyone interested in classical literature, rhetoric, history, or politics. b99f773239