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Films with micro/nanostructures that show high wicking performance are promising in water desalination, atmospheric water harvesting, and thermal energy management systems. Here, we use a facile bubble-induced self-assembly method to directly generate films with a nanoengineered crack-like surface on the substrate during bubble growth when self-dispersible graphene quantum dot (GQD) nanofluid is used as the working medium. The crack-like micro/nanostructure, which is generated due to the thermal stress, enables the GQD film to not only have superior capillary wicking performance but also provide many additional nucleation sites. The film demonstrates enhanced phase change-based heat transfer performance, with a simultaneous enhancement of the critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient up to 169% and 135% over a smooth substrate, respectively. Additionally, the GQD film with high stability enables a performance improvement in the concentration ratio and electrical efficiency of concentrated photovoltaics in an analytical study, which is promising for high-power thermal energy management applications.
A porcelain insulator is an important part to ensure that the insulation requirements of power equipment can be met. Under the influence of their structure, porcelain insulators are prone to mechanical damage and cracks, which will reduce their insulation performance. After a long-term operation, crack expansion will eventually lead to breakdown and safety hazards. Therefore, it is of great significance to detect insulator cracks to ensure the safe and reliable operation of a power grid. However, most traditional methods of insulator crack detection involve offline detection or contact measurement, which is not conducive to the online monitoring of equipment. Hyperspectral imaging technology is a noncontact detection technology containing three-dimensional (3D) spatial spectral information, whereby the data provide more information and the measuring method has a higher safety than electric detection methods. Therefore, a model of positioning and state classification of porcelain insulators based on hyperspectral technology is proposed. In this model, image data were used to extract edges to locate cracks, and spectral information was used to classify the surface states of porcelain insulators with EfficientNet. Lastly, crack extraction was realized, and the recognition accuracy of cracks and normal states was 96.9%. Through an analysis of the results, it is proven that the crack detection method of a porcelain insulator based on hyperspectral technology is an effective non-contact online monitoring approach, which has broad application prospects in the era of the Internet of Things with the rapid development of electric power.
We really see Power Surfacing as a novel and powerful unification piece between these two technologies. Being able to use both modeling paradigms together in the modeling process provides huge productivity advantages in both the design and revision process. With the ability to connect Power Surface Sub-D objects directly to existing SOLIDWORKS objects and to update the Sub-D to correspond to history tree modifications. Power Surfacing essentially provides dimension driven Sub-D modeling. Power Surfacing freeform design combined with SOLIDWORKS parametric design provides SOLIDWORKS users with a ground breaking Industrial Design toolkit.
As the name implies, this form of cracking occurs when the concrete is still plastic and is caused by shrinkage due to rapid moisture loss. Plastic shrinkage cracks appear in the first few hours after concrete placement and typically before the finishing operations are complete. Seen primarily in exterior concrete slabs, these cracks also can sometimes occur in steel-troweled floors when the moisture loss is severe and final curing is delayed.
Surface cracking can occur when surface moisture of recently placed concrete evaporates faster than it can be replaced by the rising bleed water, causing the surface concrete to shrink more than the interior concrete. Because the interior concrete restrains the shrinkage of the surface concrete, tensile stresses form on the surface. When these stresses exceed the tensile capacity of the plastic concrete, surface cracking occurs. Cracks start on the surface and grow downward creating V-shaped cracks as illustrated in Figure 1. Cracks grow deeper with increasing rates of moisture loss. Figure 1. When the surface evaporation exceeds the bleed rate, the top surface dries and shrinks. If the shrinking auses the tensile stresses to exceed the tensile capacity of the plastic concrete, surface cracking occurs.
Rapid moisture loss and drying of the surface have traditionally been blamed for the occurrence of plastic shrinkage cracking. However, any factor that increases the rate of moisture loss from the surface, reduces the amount of bleed water rising to the surface or delays hardening of the concrete, increases the risk of cracking. Influencing factors include:
In fact, the risk of plastic shrinkage cracking depends on many factors, not solely on the rate of moisture loss or rate of evaporation from the surface. However, most project specifications rely on limiting the rate of evaporation from the surface as the primary means of controlling plastic shrinkage cracking (Ref. 2 & 3).
The best way to avoid aesthetic and durability concerns related to plastic shrinkage cracks is to understand the susceptibility of a concrete mixture to cracking, monitor the jobsite conditions and take the necessary actions to minimize rapid moisture loss from the surface of the concrete.
Power Surfacing RE includes power surfacing tools that allow its user to instantly design the shapes over the mesh and evolve. It can also give you a quick performance and accuracy form converting any Sub-D model to NURBS (Non-uniform rational basis spline) which is used for solid works. Also shows the length to measure the reference mesh. It reduces the designing time for a complex surface of a project. On the other hand, it has a Design tool with face work automatically. It can enter and display mesh as a reference mesh. It can import the existing mesh from your computer. Also supports SolidWorks file formats for organizing workflow. It offers a well developed graphical environment for its users. You can also download DS Simulia (Next Limit) xFlow 2019.
FIGURE 8. Y displacement and Fitting curve: (A) Y displacement components detected by different detection points at 70; (B) Displacement of cracks with inclination angles from 20 to 90; (C) Displacement of cracks with inclination angles from 90 to 160; (D) Peak-valley displacement difference.
Citation: Han S, Lian Y, Xie L, Hu Q, Ding J, Wang Y and Lu Z (2022) Numerical simulation of angled surface crack detection based on laser ultrasound. Front. Phys. 10:982232. doi: 10.3389/fphy.2022.982232
In this paper, we propose a J-groove dissimilar weld crack visualization system based on ultrasonic propagation imaging (UPI) technology. A full-scale control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) assembly specimen was fabricated to verify the proposed system. An ultrasonic sensor was contacted at one point of the inner surface of the reactor vessel head part of the CRDM assembly. Q-switched laser beams were scanned to generate ultrasonic waves around the weld bead. The localization and sizing of the crack were possible by ultrasonic wave propagation imaging. Furthermore, ultrasonic spectral imaging unveiled frequency components of damage-induced waves, while wavelet-transformed ultrasonic propagation imaging enhanced damage visibility by generating a wave propagation video focused on the frequency component of the damage-induced waves. Dual-directional anomalous wave propagation imaging with adjacent wave subtraction was also developed to enhance the crack visibility regardless of crack orientation and wave propagation direction. In conclusion, the full-scale specimen test demonstrated that the multiple damage visualization tools are very effective in the visualization of J-groove dissimilar weld cracks.
Control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) assembly includes a reactor vessel head (RVH) and many penetration nozzles made of carbon steel and alloy 690, respectively, as shown in Figure 1(a). The two dissimilar metal parts, namely, the RVH and penetration nozzle, are coupled with welding as shown in the unit structure of the CRDM assembly in Figure 1(b). The inner surface of the RVH, which is in direct contact with the primary coolant, is covered with cladding to prevent any reaction between the carbon steel ingredient in the RVH and the boric ingredient in the coolant. During a nuclear power plant (NPP) operation period, thermal and pressure loadings are concentrated on the penetration nozzles and dissimilar metal welding, which are comparatively fragile spots. As the operation period of nuclear plants has increased, there has been an increase in the growth of primary water stress corrosion (PWSCC) on the welds of dissimilar metals or penetration nozzles by cyclic stress. As shown in Figure 2(a), these PWSCCs ultimately grow into surface cracks and become the path of primary water leakage. While the boric acid ingredient in the coolant not only accumulates on the outer surface of the reactor vessel as boric acid deposits, but it also creates a cavity by reacting with the carbon steel ingredient of the RVH, as shown in Figure 2(b) . Practically, corrosions of RVH by boric acid deposits have been demonstrated by Davis-Besse 2002 , and a leak of primary coolant water through the inner surface cracks was noticed at the Ohi NPP in Japan, 2004 .