top of page

Doggies911 Top Dogグループ

公開·28名のメンバー
Landon Jackson
Landon Jackson

Download Futuh Alhabasha PDF: The Arabic Account of Imam Ahmad's Conquest of Abyssinia



Futuh Alhabasha: The Conquest of Abyssinia PDF Download




If you are interested in the history of Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa, you may have heard of a book called Futuh Alhabasha, or The Conquest of Abyssinia. This book is a classic account of the 16th century jihad, or holy war, waged by Imam Ahmad bin Ibrahim al-Ghazi, also known as Ahmad Gran or the Left-handed, against the Christian kingdom of Ethiopia. It was written by a Yemeni jurist, Shihab al-Din Ahmad bin Abd al-Qadir bin Salim bin Uthman, also known as Arab Faqih, who was an eyewitness of several of the battles he describes.




Futuh Alhabasha The Conquest Of Abyssinia Pdf Download


Download Zip: https://www.google.com/url?q=https%3A%2F%2Ftinourl.com%2F2uccsU&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AOvVaw1vsCBGupwKOTWXo0Eocuf2



In this article, we will explore what Futuh Alhabasha is, who wrote it and why, what is the historical context of it, what are the main events it narrates, what is its significance and impact, and how you can download it as a PDF file for free. We will also answer some frequently asked questions about Futuh Alhabasha at the end.


Introduction




What is Futuh Alhabasha?




Futuh Alhabasha, or The Conquest of Abyssinia, is a book that tells the story of the 16th century jihad, or holy war, launched by Imam Ahmad bin Ibrahim al-Ghazi against the Christian kingdom of Ethiopia. The book covers the period from 1529 to 1543, when Imam Ahmad led his army of Somali, Harari, Afar, Oromo, and other Muslim warriors from different regions in a series of campaigns that resulted in the occupation of most parts of Ethiopia. The book also describes the resistance and struggle of Emperor Lebna Dengel and his allies, who tried to defend their faith and land from the invaders.


Futuh Alhabasha is written in Arabic, and it consists of two parts. The first part is a general introduction that gives some background information about Ethiopia, its geography, history, culture, religion, politics, and society. The second part is the main body of the book that narrates the events of the jihad in chronological order. The book is full of human drama, vivid descriptions, military details, religious debates, political intrigues, and personal anecdotes.


Who wrote Futuh Alhabasha and why?




The author of Futuh Alhabasha is Shihab al-Din Ahmad bin Abd al-Qadir bin Salim bin Uthman, also known as Arab Faqih. He was a Yemeni jurist, who belonged to the Shafi'i school of Islamic law. He was born in Zabid, a city in the Tihama region of Yemen, around 1496. He studied Islamic sciences in Zabid and Mecca, and he became a respected scholar and teacher. He also served as a judge in several towns in Yemen.


Arab Faqih joined Imam Ahmad's jihad in 1531, when he was about 35 years old. He was motivated by his religious zeal and his desire to witness the holy war. He accompanied Imam Ahmad in most of his campaigns, and he became one of his close advisors and confidants. He also acted as a mediator and a negotiator between Imam Ahmad and some of the Ethiopian rulers and chiefs who surrendered or allied with him.


Arab Faqih wrote Futuh Alhabasha after the death of Imam Ahmad in 1543. He wrote it as a tribute to Imam Ahmad and his companions, and as a record of their achievements and sacrifices. He also wrote it as a source of guidance and inspiration for future generations of Muslims who might want to follow their example. He dedicated his book to the Ottoman sultan, Suleiman the Magnificent, who supported Imam Ahmad's jihad financially and militarily.


What is the historical context of Futuh Alhabasha?




Futuh Alhabasha is set in the 16th century, a time of great change and turmoil in Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. Ethiopia was a Christian kingdom that traced its origins to the ancient Aksumite empire. It was ruled by the Solomonic dynasty, which claimed descent from King Solomon and Queen Sheba. Ethiopia had a rich and diverse culture, influenced by its interactions with other civilizations, such as Egypt, Byzantium, India, Arabia, and Europe. Ethiopia also had a complex and hierarchical society, composed of various ethnic groups, languages, regions, and religions.


In the 15th and 16th centuries, Ethiopia faced several challenges and threats from within and without. It suffered from internal divisions, rebellions, succession disputes, corruption, famine, and plague. It also faced external pressures from its Muslim neighbors, such as the Adal Sultanate, which controlled parts of present-day Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea, and eastern Ethiopia; the Ottoman Empire, which expanded its influence in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean; and the Portuguese Empire, which sought to establish trade and missionary contacts with Ethiopia.


In this context, Imam Ahmad bin Ibrahim al-Ghazi emerged as a charismatic and ambitious leader who aimed to unify the Muslim regions under his rule and to overthrow the Christian kingdom of Ethiopia. He launched his jihad in 1529, with the support of some local Muslim chiefs and clans, as well as foreign allies such as the Ottomans and the Somalis. His jihad lasted for 14 years, during which he conquered most parts of Ethiopia, except for some mountainous areas where Emperor Lebna Dengel and his loyalists resisted. Imam Ahmad's jihad ended in 1543, when he was killed in battle by a Portuguese musketeer who came to aid Emperor Lebna Dengel.


The main events of Futuh Alhabasha




The rise of Imam Ahmad bin Ibrahim al-Ghazi




Imam Ahmad bin Ibrahim al-Ghazi was born around 1506 in Harar, a city in eastern Ethiopia that was part of the Adal Sultanate. He belonged to the Gerad clan of the Somali Darod tribe. His father was Ibrahim al-Ghazi, a Muslim scholar and judge who died when Ahmad was young. His mother was Bati del Wambara, a Somali princess who remarried after Ibrahim's death.


Ahmad grew up in Harar, where he received his education in Islamic sciences from his father's relatives and friends. He also learned martial arts and horse riding from his maternal uncles. He was known for his intelligence, piety, courage, generosity, and charisma. He became a respected scholar and preacher who attracted many followers.


Ahmad became involved in politics when he joined the resistance movement against Sultan Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad of Adal, who ruled Harar with an iron fist. Ahmad allied with Mahfuz ibn Mudawwarah al-Habashi (Mahfuz), another Somali leader who controlled Zeila (Saylac), a port city on the Gulf of Aden. Together they fought against Sultan Abu Bakr until they defeated him in 1526.


(the Left-handed), to indicate his leadership and his military prowess. He also adopted the title of Imam (leader) to signify his religious authority and his role as a champion of Islam.


The battles between Imam Ahmad and Emperor Lebna Dengel




Imam Ahmad's first major confrontation with Emperor Lebna Dengel (also known as Dawit II) occurred in 1529, when he invaded Ethiopia with a large army of about 12,000 men, equipped with Ottoman cannons and muskets. He met the Ethiopian army, which numbered about 30,000 men, at the plain of Shimbra Kure, near Lake Zway. The battle was fierce and bloody, but Imam Ahmad's superior firepower and tactics gave him a decisive victory. He captured many Ethiopian nobles and soldiers, and killed thousands more. He also seized a large amount of booty, including gold, silver, horses, cattle, and camels.


After this victory, Imam Ahmad advanced further into Ethiopia, conquering many towns and regions along the way. He faced little resistance from the local population, who were either terrified by his brutality or impressed by his generosity. He also received support from some Ethiopian Muslims, who saw him as a liberator and a defender of their faith. He destroyed many churches and monasteries, and forced many Christians to convert to Islam or pay tribute. He also imposed Islamic law and administration in the areas under his control.


Emperor Lebna Dengel tried to stop Imam Ahmad's progress, but he was defeated again and again in several battles, such as Amba Sel (1531), Antukyah (1531), Wofla (1532), and Sahart (1533). He was forced to retreat to the mountainous regions of northern Ethiopia, where he sought refuge in fortresses and monasteries. He also appealed to the Christian kingdoms of Europe for help, especially to Portugal, which had established a maritime presence in the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea.


The death of Imam Ahmad and the end of his conquest




In 1541, a small Portuguese force of about 400 men arrived in Ethiopia to assist Emperor Lebna Dengel. They were led by Cristóvão da Gama (the son of Vasco da Gama), who brought with him modern weapons such as arquebuses and harquebuses. They joined forces with Emperor Lebna Dengel's son, Galawdewos (also known as Claudius), who had succeeded his father after his death in 1540.


Imam Ahmad was not intimidated by the Portuguese intervention. He had already received reinforcements from the Ottomans and the Somalis, and he had a much larger army than his enemies. He decided to confront them at the plain of Wayna Daga (also known as Gragne), near Lake Tana. The battle took place on February 21, 1543.


The battle was fierce and chaotic, with both sides exchanging volleys of gunfire and charges of cavalry. Imam Ahmad fought bravely and skillfully, but he was fatally wounded by a shot from a Portuguese musketeer. His death caused panic and confusion among his troops, who fled in disarray. The Ethiopians and the Portuguese pursued them and inflicted heavy casualties on them.


Imam Ahmad's death marked the end of his conquest of Ethiopia. His army disintegrated soon after his death, and most of his soldiers returned to their homelands or surrendered to their enemies. Many Muslim converts reverted to Christianity or were killed or enslaved by the Ethiopians. The regions that Imam Ahmad had occupied were reclaimed by Emperor Galawdewos, who restored Christian rule and authority in Ethiopia.


The significance and impact of Futuh Alhabasha




The effects of Futuh Alhabasha on Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa




Futuh Alhabasha had profound effects on Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. It was one of the most devastating wars in Ethiopian history, which resulted in massive loss of life, property, culture, and territory. It also weakened Ethiopia's political and military power for centuries to come. It exposed Ethiopia's vulnerability to foreign invasion and intervention, especially from the Ottomans and the Portuguese. It also created deep divisions and animosities between Christians and Muslims, as well as between different ethnic groups, in the region.


On the other hand, Futuh Alhabasha also had some positive effects on Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. It stimulated Ethiopia's cultural and religious revival, as well as its national and regional identity. It inspired Ethiopia's resistance and resilience against external threats and challenges. It also fostered Ethiopia's contact and cooperation with other Christian kingdoms and powers, such as Portugal, Spain, France, and Rome. It also contributed to the diversity and richness of Ethiopia's history and heritage.


The reception and interpretation of Futuh Alhabasha by different groups




Futuh Alhabasha has been received and interpreted differently by different groups of people over time. For the Ethiopian Christians, Futuh Alhabasha was a tragic and traumatic event that threatened their existence and faith. They regarded Imam Ahmad as a cruel and evil tyrant who persecuted and oppressed them. They celebrated his death as a divine intervention and a miraculous victory. They also praised Emperor Galawdewos and his allies as heroes and martyrs who saved their country and religion.


For the Ethiopian Muslims, Futuh Alhabasha was a glorious and heroic event that affirmed their identity and faith. They regarded Imam Ahmad as a pious and noble leader who fought for the cause of Islam. They mourned his death as a great loss and a missed opportunity. They also honored him and his companions as martyrs and saints who sacrificed their lives for their country and religion.


For the Yemeni Arabs, Futuh Alhabasha was a fascinating and informative account that documented their involvement and contribution to the jihad in Ethiopia. They regarded Arab Faqih as a reliable and eloquent witness who recorded the events with accuracy and detail. They valued his book as a valuable source of history, geography, culture, and religion of Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa.


For the Ottoman Turks, Futuh Alhabasha was a strategic and political account that justified their expansion and intervention in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. They regarded Imam Ahmad as an ally and a client who served their interests and ambitions. They supported his jihad with weapons, soldiers, and money. They also claimed his legacy as part of their imperial history.


For the Portuguese Europeans, Futuh Alhabasha was a challenging and adventurous account that reflected their exploration and mission in Africa and Asia. They regarded Imam Ahmad as an enemy and a rival who opposed their trade and faith. They resisted his jihad with weapons, soldiers, and diplomacy. They also celebrated their role as part of their colonial history.


The relevance and value of Futuh Alhabasha for modern readers




and balanced view of the Ethiopian society, culture, and religion at that time. It is also one of the few sources that reveal the role and contribution of the Yemeni Arabs, the Ottoman Turks, and the Portuguese Europeans to the jihad in Ethiopia.


Futuh Alhabasha can also offer some insights and lessons for modern readers, especially for those who are concerned with the issues of conflict, coexistence, and dialogue between Christians and Muslims, as well as between different ethnic groups, in Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. It can help them to understand the historical roots and causes of these issues, as well as the possible ways to address them. It can also inspire them to appreciate the diversity and richness of their common heritage, as well as to respect and tolerate their differences.


How to download Futuh Alhabasha PDF for free




The sources and availability of Futuh Alhabasha PDF online




If you want to read Futuh Alhabasha in its original Arabic language, or in its English translation by Paul Lester Stenhouse and Richard Pankhurst, you can download it as a PDF file for free from various online sources. However, you should be aware that some of these sources may not have the complete or accurate version of the book, or they may have some technical or legal issues. Therefore, you should be careful and selective when choosing which source to download from.


One of the most reliable and accessible sources for downloading Futuh Alhabasha PDF online is Internet Archive (archive.org), a non-profit digital library that offers free access to millions of books, movies, music, software, and other media. Internet Archive has several copies of Futuh Alhabasha PDF in Arabic and English, which you can view online or download to your device. You can also borrow some copies for a limited period of time.


The steps to download Futuh Alhabasha PDF from Internet Archive




Here are the steps to download Futuh Alhabasha PDF from Internet Archive:



  • Go to archive.org and type "Futuh Alhabasha" or "The Conquest of Abyssinia" in the search box.



  • Select the copy that you want to download from the list of results. You can check the language, format, size, date, and other details of each copy before choosing one.



  • Click on the title or the image of the copy that you want to download. This will take you to a new page where you can see more information about the copy and its availability.



  • On the right side of the page, you will see a box that says "Download Options". Here you can choose which format you want to download: PDF, EPUB, Kindle, Text, or DAISY. Click on the format that you prefer.



  • A new window will pop up that will ask you to confirm your download. Click on "OK" or "Save File" to start downloading Futuh Alhabasha PDF to your device.



  • Wait for a few minutes until the download is complete. You can then open Futuh Alhabasha PDF with any PDF reader or viewer on your device.



The benefits and drawbacks of downloading Futuh Alhabasha PDF online




Downloading Futuh Alhabasha PDF online has some benefits and drawbacks that you should consider before doing so. Here are some of them:



Benefits


Drawbacks


- It is free and easy to do.


- It may not be legal or ethical in some cases.


- It allows you to read Futuh Alhabasha anytime and anywhere on your device.


- It may not have the best quality or accuracy of the book.


- It saves you time and money that you would spend on buying or borrowing a physical copy of the book.


- It may not support the authors or publishers of the book.


- It helps you to preserve and share a rare and valuable book with others.


- It may not give you the same experience or satisfaction as reading a physical copy of the book.


Conclusion




Futuh Alhabasha, or The Conquest of Abyssinia, is a classic book that tells the story of the 16th century jihad in Ethiopia by Imam Ahmad bin Ibrahim al-Ghazi. It was written by Arab Faqih, a Yemeni jurist who witnessed and participated in the jihad. It is a valuable source of history, geography, culture, and religion of Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. It is also a relevant and insightful book for modern readers who are interested in the issues of conflict, coexistence, and dialogue between Christians and Muslims, as well as between different ethnic groups, in the region. You can download Futuh Alhabasha PDF for free from Internet Archive, but you should also be aware of the benefits and drawbacks of doing so.


FAQs




Here are some frequently asked questions about Futuh Alhabasha:



  • What does Futuh Alhabasha mean?



Futuh Alhabasha means "The Conquest of Abyssinia" in Arabic. Abyssinia was the name given by the Arabs to Ethiopia, which means "the land of the burnt faces". Futuh is a plural noun that means "conquests" or "openings", and it refers to the Islamic expansion and propagation in different regions.


  • Who was Imam Ahmad bin Ibrahim al-Ghazi?



Imam Ahmad bin Ibrahim al-Ghazi was a Somali leader who led a jihad, or holy war, against the Christian kingdom of Ethiopia in the 16th century. He was also known as Ahmad Gran or the Left-handed, because he lost his right hand in battle. He conquered most parts of Ethiopia, except for some mountainous areas where Emperor Lebna Dengel and his allies resisted. He was killed in battle by a Portuguese musketeer in 1543.


  • Who was Arab Faqih?



Arab Faqih was a Yemeni jurist who wrote Futuh Alhabasha, or The Conquest of Abyssinia. He was an eyewitness and a participant of the jihad in Ethiopia by Imam Ahmad bin Ibrahim al-Ghazi. He was also one of Imam Ahmad's close advisors and confidants. He wrote Futuh Alhabasha as a tribute to Imam Ahmad and his companions, and as a record of their achievements and sacrifices.


  • What is the historical context of Futuh Alhabasha?



Futuh Alhabasha is set in the 16th century, a time of great change and turmoil in Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. Ethiopia was a Christian kingdom that faced several challenges and threats from within and without. It suffered from internal divisions, rebellions, succession disputes, corruption, famine, and


グループについて

グループへようこそ!他のメンバーと交流したり、最新情報を入手したり、動画をシェアすることができます。

メンバー

bottom of page